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Python-Day5 常用模块学习

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一、模块介绍

通俗点说,就是把常用的一些功能单独放置到一个.py文件中,方便其他文件来调用,这样的一个文件可以称为一个模块。

模块分为三种:

自定义模块 内置标准模块(又称标准库) 开源模块 二、导入模块

python之所以应用越来越广泛,在一定程度上也依赖于其为程序员提供了大量的模块以供使用,如果想要使用模块,则需要导入。导入模块有一下几种方法:


import module
from module.xx.xx import xx
from module.xx.xx import xx as rename
from module.xx.xx import *

导入模块其实就是告诉Python解释器去解释那个py文件

导入一个py文件,解释器解释该py文件 导入一个包,解释器解释该包下的 __init__.py 文件

通过os模块可以获取各种目录,例如:


import sys
import os
pre_path = os.path.abspath('../')
sys.path.append(pre_path)
三、time & datetime模块
1 #_*_coding:utf-8_*_
2 __author__ = 'Alex Li'
3
4 import time
5
6
7 # print(time.clock()) #返回处理器时间,3.3开始已废弃 , 改成了time.process_time()测量处理器运算时间,不包括sleep时间,不稳定,mac上测不出来
8 # print(time.altzone) #返回与utc时间的时间差,以秒计算\
9 # print(time.asctime()) #返回时间格式"Fri Aug 19 11:14:16 2016",
10 # print(time.localtime()) #返回本地时间 的struct time对象格式
11 # print(time.gmtime(time.time()-800000)) #返回utc时间的struc时间对象格式
12
13 # print(time.asctime(time.localtime())) #返回时间格式"Fri Aug 19 11:14:16 2016",
14 #print(time.ctime()) #返回Fri Aug 19 12:38:29 2016 格式, 同上
15
16
17
18 # 日期字符串 转成 时间戳
19 # string_2_struct = time.strptime("2016/05/22","%Y/%m/%d") #将 日期字符串 转成 struct时间对象格式
20 # print(string_2_struct)
21 # #
22 # struct_2_stamp = time.mktime(string_2_struct) #将struct时间对象转成时间戳
23 # print(struct_2_stamp)
24
25
26
27 #将时间戳转为字符串格式
28 # print(time.gmtime(time.time()-86640)) #将utc时间戳转换成struct_time格式
29 # print(time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S",time.gmtime()) ) #将utc struct_time格式转成指定的字符串格式
30
31
32
33
34
35 #时间加减
36 import datetime
37
38 # print(datetime.datetime.now()) #返回 2016-08-19 12:47:03.941925
39 #print(datetime.date.fromtimestamp(time.time()) ) # 时间戳直接转成日期格式 2016-08-19
40 # print(datetime.datetime.now() )
41 # print(datetime.datetime.now() + datetime.timedelta(3)) #当前时间+3天
42 # print(datetime.datetime.now() + datetime.timedelta(-3)) #当前时间-3天
43 # print(datetime.datetime.now() + datetime.timedelta(hours=3)) #当前时间+3小时
44 # print(datetime.datetime.now() + datetime.timedelta(minutes=30)) #当前时间+30分
45
46
47 #
48 # c_time = datetime.datetime.now()
49 # print(c_time.replace(minute=3,hour=2)) #时间替换
格式参照:
1 %a 本地(locale)简化星期名称
2 %A 本地完整星期名称
3 %b 本地简化月份名称
4 %B 本地完整月份名称
5 %c 本地相应的日期和时间表示
6 %d 一个月中的第几天(01 - 31)
7 %H 一天中的第几个小时(24小时制,00 - 23)
8 %I 第几个小时(12小时制,01 - 12)
9 %j 一年中的第几天(001 - 366)
10 %m 月份(01 - 12)
11 %M 分钟数(00 - 59)
12 %p 本地am或者pm的相应符 一
13 %S 秒(01 - 61) 二
14 %U 一年中的星期数。(00 - 53星期天是一个星期的开始。)第一个星期天之前的所有天数都放在第0周。 三
15 %w 一个星期中的第几天(0 - 6,0是星期天) 三
16 %W 和%U基本相同,不同的是%W以星期一为一个星期的开始。
17 %x 本地相应日期
18 %X 本地相应时间
19 %y 去掉世纪的年份(00 - 99)
20 %Y 完整的年份
21 %Z 时区的名字(如果不存在为空字符)
22 %% ‘%’字符
时间关系转换:
Python-Day5 常用模块学习
四、random模块
#!/usr/bin/env python
#_*_encoding: utf-8_*_
import random
print (random.random()) #0.6445010863311293
#random.random()用于生成一个0到1的随机符点数: 0 <= n < 1.0
print (random.randint(1,7)) #4
#random.randint()的函数原型为:random.randint(a, b),用于生成一个指定范围内的整数。
# 其中参数a是下限,参数b是上限,生成的随机数n: a <= n <= b
print (random.randrange(1,10)) #5
#random.randrange的函数原型为:random.randrange([start], stop[, step]),
# 从指定范围内,按指定基数递增的集合中 获取一个随机数。如:random.randrange(10, 100, 2),
# 结果相当于从[10, 12, 14, 16, ... 96, 98]序列中获取一个随机数。
# random.randrange(10, 100, 2)在结果上与 random.choice(range(10, 100, 2) 等效。
print(random.choice('liukuni')) #i
#random.choice从序列中获取一个随机元素。
# 其函数原型为:random.choice(sequence)。参数sequence表示一个有序类型。
# 这里要说明一下:sequence在python不是一种特定的类型,而是泛指一系列的类型。
# list, tuple, 字符串都属于sequence。有关sequence可以查看python手册数据模型这一章。
# 下面是使用choice的一些例子:
print(random.choice("学习Python"))#学
print(random.choice(["JGood","is","a","handsome","boy"])) #List
print(random.choice(("Tuple","List","Dict"))) #List
print(random.sample([1,2,3,4,5],3)) #[1, 2, 5]
#random.sample的函数原型为:random.sample(sequence, k),从指定序列中随机获取指定长度的片断。sample函数不会修改原有序列。
实际应用:
#!/usr/bin/env python
# encoding: utf-8
import random
import string
#随机整数:
print( random.randint(0,99)) #70
#随机选取0到100间的偶数:
print(random.randrange(0, 101, 2)) #4
#随机浮点数:
print( random.random()) #0.2746445568079129
print(random.uniform(1, 10)) #9.887001463194844
#随机字符:
print(random.choice('abcdefg&#%^*f')) #f
#多个字符中选取特定数量的字符:
print(random.sample('abcdefghij',3)) #['f', 'h', 'd']
#随机选取字符串:
print( random.choice ( ['apple', 'pear', 'peach', 'orange', 'lemon'] )) #apple
#洗牌#
items = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]
print(items) #[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
random.shuffle(items)
print(items) #[1, 4, 7, 2, 5, 3, 6]
生成随机验证码:
import random
checkcode = ''
for i in range(4):
current = random.randrange(0,4)
if current != i:
temp = chr(random.randint(65,90))
else:
temp = random.randint(0,9)
checkcode += str(temp)
print checkcode
五、os模块
os.getcwd() 获取当前工作目录,即当前python脚本工作的目录路径
os.chdir("dirname") 改变当前脚本工作目录;相当于shell下cd
os.curdir 返回当前目录: ('.')
os.pardir 获取当前目录的父目录字符串名:('..')
os.makedirs('dirname1/dirname2') 可生成多层递归目录
os.removedirs('dirname1') 若目录为空,则删除,并递归到上一级目录,如若也为空,则删除,依此类推
os.mkdir('dirname') 生成单级目录;相当于shell中mkdir dirname
os.rmdir('dirname') 删除单级空目录,若目录不为空则无法删除,报错;相当于shell中rmdir dirname
os.listdir('dirname') 列出指定目录下的所有文件和子目录,包括隐藏文件,并以列表方式打印
os.remove() 删除一个文件
os.rename("oldname","newname") 重命名文件/目录
os.stat('path/filename') 获取文件/目录信息
os.sep 输出操作系统特定的路径分隔符,win下为"\\",linux下为"/"
os.linesep 输出当前平台使用的行终止符,win下为"\t\n",Linux下为"\n"
os.pathsep 输出用于分割文件路径的字符串
os.name 输出字符串指示当前使用平台。win->'nt'; Linux->'posix'
os.system("bash command") 运行shell命令,直接显示
os.environ 获取系统环境变量
os.path.abspath(path) 返回path规范化的绝对路径
os.path.split(path) 将path分割成目录和文件名二元组返回
os.path.dirname(path) 返回path的目录。其实就是os.path.split(path)的第一个元素
os.path.basename(path) 返回path最后的文件名。如何path以/或\结尾,那么就会返回空值。即os.path.split(path)的第二个元素
os.path.exists(path) 如果path存在,返回True;如果path不存在,返回False
os.path.isabs(path) 如果path是绝对路径,返回True
os.path.isfile(path) 如果path是一个存在的文件,返回True。否则返回False
os.path.isdir(path) 如果path是一个存在的目录,则返回True。否则返回False
os.path.join(path1[, path2[, ...]]) 将多个路径组合后返回,第一个绝对路径之前的参数将被忽略
os.path.getatime(path) 返回path所指向的文件或者目录的最后存取时间
os.path.getmtime(path) 返回path所指向的文件或者目录的最后修改时间
六、sys模块
sys.argv 命令行参数List,第一个元素是程序本身路径
sys.exit(n) 退出程序,正常退出时exit(0)
sys.version 获取Python解释程序的版本信息
sys.maxint 最大的Int值
sys.path 返回模块的搜索路径,初始化时使用PYTHONPATH环境变量的值
sys.platform 返回操作系统平台名称
sys.stdout.write('please:')
val = sys.stdin.readline()[:-1]
七、 shutil模块

高级的 文件、文件夹、压缩包 处理模块

shutil.copyfileobj(fsrc, fdst[, length])

将文件内容拷贝到另一个文件中,可以部分内容


def copyfileobj(fsrc, fdst, length=16*1024):
"""copy data from file-like object fsrc to file-like object fdst"""
while 1:
buf = fsrc.read(length)
if not buf:
break
fdst.write(buf)

shutil.copyfile(src, dst)

拷贝文件


def copyfile(src, dst):
"""Copy data from src to dst"""
if _samefile(src, dst):
raise Error("`%s` and `%s` are the same file" % (src, dst))
for fn in [src, dst]:
try:
st = os.stat(fn)
except OSError:
# File most likely does not exist
pass
else:
# XXX What about other special files? (sockets, devices...)
if stat.S_ISFIFO(st.st_mode):
raise SpecialFileError("`%s` is a named pipe" % fn)
with open(src, 'rb') as fsrc:
with open(dst, 'wb') as fdst:
copyfileobj(fsrc, fdst)

shutil.copymode(src, dst)

仅拷贝权限。内容、组、用户均不变


def copymode(src, dst):
"""Copy mode bits from src to dst"""
if hasattr(os, 'chmod'):
st = os.stat(src)
mode = stat.S_IMODE(st.st_mode)
os.chmod(dst, mode)

shutil.copystat(src, dst)

拷贝状态的信息,包括:mode bits, atime, mtime, flags


def copystat(src, dst):
"""Copy all stat info (mode bits, atime, mtime, flags) from src to dst"""
st = os.stat(src)
mode = stat.S_IMODE(st.st_mode)
if hasattr(os, 'utime'):
os.utime(dst, (st.st_atime, st.st_mtime))
if hasattr(os, 'chmod'):
os.chmod(dst, mode)
if hasattr(os, 'chflags') and hasattr(st, 'st_flags'):
try:
os.chflags(dst, st.st_flags)
except OSError, why:
for err in 'EOPNOTSUPP', 'ENOTSUP':
if hasattr(errno, err) and why.errno == getattr(errno, err):
break
else:
raise

shutil.copy(src, dst)

拷贝文件和权限


def copy(src, dst):
"""Copy data and mode bits ("cp src dst").
The destination may be a directory.
"""
if os.path.isdir(dst):
dst = os.path.join(dst, os.path.basename(src))
copyfile(src, dst)
copymode(src, dst)

shutil.copy2(src, dst)

拷贝文件和状态信息


def copy2(src, dst):
"""Copy data and all stat info ("cp -p src dst").
The destination may be a directory.
"""
if os.path.isdir(dst):
dst = os.path.join(dst, os.path.basename(src))
copyfile(src, dst)
copystat(src, dst)

shutil.ignore_patterns(*patterns)

shutil.copytree(src, dst, symlinks=False, ignore=None)

递归的去拷贝文件

例如:copytree(source, destination, ignore=ignore_patterns('*.pyc', 'tmp*'))


def ignore_patterns(*patterns):
"""Function that can be used as copytree() ignore parameter.
Patterns is a sequence of glob-style patterns
that are used to exclude files"""
def _ignore_patterns(path, names):
ignored_names = []
for pattern in patterns:
ignored_names.extend(fnmatch.filter(names, pattern))
return set(ignored_names)
return _ignore_patterns
def copytree(src, dst, symlinks=False, ignore=None):
"""Recursively copy a directory tree using copy2().
The destination directory must not already exist.
If exception(s) occur, an Error is raised with a list of reasons.
If the optional symlinks flag is true, symbolic links in the
source tree result in symbolic links in the destination tree; if
it is false, the contents of the files pointed to by symbolic
links are copied.
The optional ignore argument is a callable. If given, it
is called with the `src` parameter, which is the directory
being visited by copytree(), and `names` which is the list of
`src` contents, as returned by os.listdir():
callable(src, names) -> ignored_names
Since copytree() is called recursively, the callable will be
called once for each directory that is copied. It returns a
list of names relative to the `src` directory that should
not be copied.
XXX Consider this example code rather than the ultimate tool.
"""
names = os.listdir(src)
if ignore is not None:
ignored_names = ignore(src, names)
else:
ignored_names = set()
os.makedirs(dst)
errors = []
for name in names:
if name in ignored_names:
continue
srcname = os.path.join(src, name)
dstname = os.path.join(dst, name)
try:
if symlinks and os.path.islink(srcname):
linkto = os.readlink(srcname)
os.symlink(linkto, dstname)
elif os.path.isdir(srcname):
copytree(srcname, dstname, symlinks, ignore)
else:
# Will raise a SpecialFileError for unsupported file types
copy2(srcname, dstname)
# catch the Error from the recursive copytree so that we can
# continue with other files
except Error, err:
errors.extend(err.args[0])
except EnvironmentError, why:
errors.append((srcname, dstname, str(why)))
try:
copystat(src, dst)
except OSError, why:
if windowsError is not None and isinstance(why, WindowsError):
# Copying file access times may fail on Windows
pass
else:
errors.append((src, dst, str(why)))
if errors:
raise Error, errors
shutil.rmtree(path[, ignore_errors[, onerror]])

递归的去删除文件


def rmtree(path, ignore_errors=False, onerror=None):
"""Recursively delete a directory tree.
If ignore_errors is set, errors are ignored; otherwise, if onerror
is set, it is called to handle the error with arguments (func,
path, exc_info) where func is os.listdir, os.remove, or os.rmdir;
path is the argument to that function that caused it to fail; and
exc_info is a tuple returned by sys.exc_info(). If ignore_errors
is false and onerror is None, an exception is raised.
"""
if ignore_errors:
def onerror(*args):
pass
elif onerror is None:
def onerror(*args):
raise
try:
if os.path.islink(path):
# symlinks to directories are forbidden, see bug #1669
raise OSError("Cannot call rmtree on a symbolic link")
except OSError:
onerror(os.path.islink, path, sys.exc_info())
# can't continue even if onerror hook returns
return
names = []
try:
names = os.listdir(path)
except os.error, err:
onerror(os.listdir, path, sys.exc_info())
for name in names:
fullname = os.path.join(path, name)
try:
mode = os.lstat(fullname).st_mode
except os.error:
mode = 0
if stat.S_ISDIR(mode):
rmtree(fullname, ignore_errors, onerror)
else:
try:
os.remove(fullname)
except os.error, err:
onerror(os.remove, fullname, sys.exc_info())
try:
os.rmdir(path)
except os.error:
onerror(os.rmdir, path, sys.exc_info())

shutil.move(src, dst)

递归的去移动文件


def move(src, dst):
"""Recursively move a file or directory to another location. This is
similar to the Unix "mv" command.
If the destination is a directory or a symlink to a directory, the source
is moved inside the directory. The destination path must not already
exist.
If the destination already exists but is not a directory, it may be
overwritten depending on os.rename() semantics.
If the destination is on our current filesystem, then rename() is used.
Otherwise, src is copied to the destination and then removed.
A lot more could be done here... A look at a mv.c shows a lot of
the issues this implementation glosses over.
"""
real_dst = dst
if os.path.isdir(dst):
if _samefile(src, dst):
# We might be on a case insensitive filesystem,
# perform the rename anyway.
os.rename(src, dst)
return
real_dst = os.path.join(dst, _basename(src))
if os.path.exists(real_dst):
raise Error, "Destination path '%s' already exists" % real_dst
try:
os.rename(src, real_dst)
except OSError:
if os.path.isdir(src):
if _destinsrc(src, dst):
raise Error, "Cannot move a directory '%s' into itself '%s'." % (src, dst)
copytree(src, real_dst, symlinks=True)
rmtree(src)
else:
copy2(src, real_dst)
os.unlink(src)

shutil.make_archive(base_name, format,...)

创建压缩包并返回文件路径,例如:zip、tar

base_name: 压缩包的文件名,也可以是压缩包的路径。只是文件名时,则保存至当前目录,否则保存至指定路径,

如:www =>保存至当前路径

如:/Users/wupeiqi/www =>保存至/Users/wupeiqi/

format: 压缩包种类,“zip”, “tar”, “bztar”,“gztar” root_dir: 要压缩的文件夹路径(默认当前目录) owner: 用户,默认当前用户 group: 组,默认当前组 logger: 用于记录日志,通常是logging.Logger对象
#将 /Users/wupeiqi/Downloads/test 下的文件打包放置当前程序目录
import shutil
ret = shutil.make_archive("wwwwwwwwww", 'gztar', root_dir='/Users/wupeiqi/Downloads/test')
#将 /Users/wupeiqi/Downloads/test 下的文件打包放置 /Users/wupeiqi/目录
import shutil
ret = shutil.make_archive("/Users/wupeiqi/wwwwwwwwww", 'gztar', root_dir='/Users/wupeiqi/Downloads/test')
def make_archive(base_name, format, root_dir=None, base_dir=None, verbose=0,
dry_run=0, owner=None, group=None, logger=None):
"""Create an archive file (eg. zip or tar).
'base_name' is the name of the file to create, minus any format-specific
extension; 'format' is the archive format: one of "zip", "tar", "bztar"
or "gztar".
'root_dir' is a directory that will be the root directory of the
archive; ie. we typically chdir into 'root_dir' before creating the
archive. 'base_dir' is the directory where we start archiving from;
ie. 'base_dir' will be the common prefix of all files and
directories in the archive. 'root_dir' and 'base_dir' both default
to the current directory. Returns the name of the archive file.
'owner' and 'group' are used when creating a tar archive. By default,
uses the current owner and group.
"""
save_cwd = os.getcwd()
if root_dir is not None:
if logger is not None:
logger.debug("changing into '%s'", root_dir)
base_name = os.path.abspath(base_name)
if not dry_run:
os.chdir(root_dir)
if base_dir is None:
base_dir = os.curdir
kwargs = {'dry_run': dry_run, 'logger': logger}
try:
format_info = _ARCHIVE_FORMATS[format]
except KeyError:
raise ValueError, "unknown archive format '%s'" % format
func = format_info[0]
for arg, val in format_info[1]:
kwargs[arg] = val
if format != 'zip':
kwargs['owner'] = owner
kwargs['group'] = group
try:
filename = func(base_name, base_dir, **kwargs)
finally:
if root_dir is not None:
if logger is not None:
logger.debug("changing back to '%s'", save_cwd)
os.chdir(save_cwd)
return filename
View Code

shutil 对压缩包的处理是调用 ZipFile 和 TarFile 两个模块来进行的,详细:


import zipfile
# 压缩
z = zipfile.ZipFile('laxi.zip', 'w')
z.write('a.log')
z.write('data.data')
z.close()
# 解压
z = zipfile.ZipFile('laxi.zip', 'r')
z.extractall()
z.close()
zipfile 压缩解压
import tarfile
# 压缩
tar = tarfile.open('your.tar','w')
tar.add('/Users/wupeiqi/PycharmProjects/bbs2.zip', arcname='bbs2.zip')
tar.add('/Users/wupeiqi/PycharmProjects/cmdb.zip', arcname='cmdb.zip')
tar.close()
# 解压
tar = tarfile.open('your.tar','r')
tar.extractall() # 可设置解压地址
tar.close()
tarfile 压缩解压
class ZipFile(object):
""" Class with methods to open, read, write, close, list zip files.
z = ZipFile(file, mode="r", compression=ZIP_STORED, allowZip64=False)
file: Either the path to the file, or a file-like object.
If it is a path, the file will be opened and closed by ZipFile.
mode: The mode can be either read "r", write "w" or append "a".
compression: ZIP_STORED (no compression) or ZIP_DEFLATED (requires zlib).
allowZip64: if True ZipFile will create files with ZIP64 extensions when
needed, otherwise it will raise an exception when this would
be necessary.
"""
fp = None # Set here since __del__ checks it
def __init__(self, file, mode="r", compression=ZIP_STORED, allowZip64=False):
"""Open the ZIP file with mode read "r", write "w" or append "a"."""
if mode not in ("r", "w", "a"):
raise RuntimeError('ZipFile() requires mode "r", "w", or "a"')
if compression == ZIP_STORED:
pass
elif compression == ZIP_DEFLATED:
if not zlib:
raise RuntimeError,\
"Compression requires the (missing) zlib module"
else:
raise RuntimeError, "That compression method is not supported"
self._allowZip64 = allowZip64
self._didModify = False
self.debug = 0 # Level of printing: 0 through 3
self.NameToInfo = {} # Find file info given name
self.filelist = [] # List of ZipInfo instances for archive
self.compression = compression # Method of compression
self.mode = key = mode.replace('b', '')[0]
self.pwd = None
self._comment = ''
# Check if we were passed a file-like object
if isinstance(file, basestring):
self._filePassed = 0
self.filename = file
modeDict = {'r' : 'rb', 'w': 'wb', 'a' : 'r+b'}
try:
self.fp = open(file, modeDict[mode])
except IOError:
if mode == 'a':
mode = key = 'w'
self.fp = open(file, modeDict[mode])
else:
raise
else:
self._filePassed = 1
self.fp = file
self.filename = getattr(file, 'name', None)
try:
if key == 'r':
self._RealGetContents()
elif key == 'w':
# set the modified flag so central directory gets written
# even if no files are added to the archive
self._didModify = True
elif key == 'a':
try:
# See if file is a zip file
self._RealGetContents()
# seek to start of directory and overwrite
self.fp.seek(self.start_dir, 0)
except BadZipfile:
# file is not a zip file, just append
self.fp.seek(0, 2)
# set the modified flag so central directory gets written
# even if no files are added to the archive
self._didModify = True
else:
raise RuntimeError('Mode must be "r", "w" or "a"')
except:
fp = self.fp
self.fp = None
if not self._filePassed:
fp.close()
raise
def __enter__(self):
return self
def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback):
self.close()
def _RealGetContents(self):
"""Read in the table of contents for the ZIP file."""
fp = self.fp
try:
endrec = _EndRecData(fp)
except IOError:
raise BadZipfile("File is not

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