Channel: CodeSection,代码区,网络安全 - CodeSec
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本章分出来专门来谈谈网络安全,当然还是比较泛泛地谈一下网络安全的特征,常见网络安全的漏洞,和网络安全控制的办法。在参考的过程中应该结合 信息安全管理(2):什么叫作信息安全?信息安全的原则和要求一起阅读和理解。因为网络安全本来就是前一章节的一部分。


1 网络的定义和特征1.1 网络的定义


网络的用处 What is a network… Devices in a network… LAN, WAN and Internetworks What do networks do for you… Sharing resources Use/share applications 1.2 网络的特征 Characteristics of networks


Automation Distance Opaqueness Routing diversity1.3 Network Topology2 TCP/IP Protocols… Open Systems ANSI , IETF, ISO, IAB 2.1 ISO OSI Reference Model - 7 Layers Application:End user processes like FTP, e-mail, etc. Presentation:Format, Encrypt data to send across network Session:Establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications Transport:End-to-end error recovery, flow control, priority services Network:Switching, Routing, Addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing Data-link:Encoding, decoding data packets into bits. Media Access Control Sub-layer : Data access/transmit permissions. Logical Link Sub-layer : Frame synchronisation, flow control, error checking. Physical: Conveys the bit stream (electrical, light, radio)All People Seem To Need Data ProtectionPeople Do Not Trust Sales People Always
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2.2 相关协议 Application layer FTP, Telnet, DNS, DHCP, TFTP,RPC,NFS, SNMP.. Transport layer TCP, UDP Internet Layer IP, ICMP, ARP, bootp… Organisations / entities : ICANN, IETF, IAB, IRTF, ISOC, W3C Other Protocols IPX/SPX ATM DECnet IEEE 802.11 AppleTalk USB SNA 3 网络的安全隐患3.1 网络不安全的原因

What makes network vulnerable

Anonymity Multiplicity of points of attack Resource sharing Complexity of system Uncertain perimeter Unknown path Protocol flaws / protocol implementation flaws 3.2 网络攻击的动机

Motivations of network attacks

Challenge Fame Organised Crime Ideology Espionage / Intelligence 4 网络安全的威胁

Threats in Networks

4.1 侦察


Port Scan Social Engineering Intelligence gathering O/S and Application fingerprinting IRC Chat rooms Available documentation and tools Protocol flaws / protocol implementation flaws 4.2 网络传输过程中的威胁

Threats in Transit

Eavesdropping / Packet sniffing Media tapping (Cable, Microwave, Satellite, Optical fibre, Wireless) 4.3 网络冒充


Password guessing Avoiding authentication Non-existent authentication Well-known authentication Masquerading Session hijacking Man-in-the-middle 4.4 信息私密性威胁

Message Confidentiality Threats

Mis-delivery Exposure in various devices in the path Traffic Flow analysis sometimes the knowledge of existence of messagecan be as important as message content 4.5 信息完整性威胁

Message Integrity Threats

Falsification Noise Protocol failures / misconfigurations 4.6 基于操作系统的威胁

Operating System based Threats

Buffer-Overflow Virus , Trojans, rootkits Password 4.7 基于应用程序的威胁

Application based Threats

Web-site defacement DNS cache poisoning XSS (Cross-site Scripting) Active-code / Mobile-code Cookie harvesting Scripting 4.8 拒绝服务

Denial of service

Syn Flooding Ping of death Smurf Teardrop Traffic re-direction Distributed Denial of Service Bots and Botnets Script Kiddies 5 网络安全控制

Network Security Controls

5.1 弱点和威胁分析

Vulnerability and Threat assessment

5.2 网络结构控制

Network Architecture

Network segmentation Architect for availability Avoid SPOF (single points of failure) Encryption Link encryption End-to-end encryption Secure Virtual Private Networks Public Key Infrastructure and Certificates SSL and SSH 5.3 增强加密系统

Strong Authentication

One Time Password Challenge Response authentication Kerberos 5.4 防火墙设置


Packet Filters Stateful Packet Filters Application proxies Diodes Firewall on end-points 5.5 入侵检查和防御系统

Intrusion Detection / Prevention Systems

Network based / host based Signature based Heuristics based / protocol anomaly based Stealth mode 5.6 使用政策和规程

Policies and Procedures

Enterprise-wide Information Security Policy Procedures Buy-in (from Executives and employees) Review, enhancement and modification 5.7 其他网络控制方式

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