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Implementing Security Groups in OpenStack using OVN Port Groups

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Some time back, when looking at the performance of OpenStack using OVN as the networking backend, we noticed that it didn't scale really well and it turned out that the major culprit was the way we implemented Neutron Security Groups . In order to illustrate the issue and the optimizations that we carried out, let's first explain how security was originally implemented:

Networking-ovn and Neutron Security Groups

Originally, Security Groups were implemented using a combination of OVN resources such as Address Sets and Access Control Lists (ACLs):

Address Sets : An OVN Address set contains a number of IP addresses that can be referenced from an ACL. In networking-ovn we directly map Security Groups to OVN Address Sets: every time a new IP address is allocated for a port, this address will be added to the Address Set(s) representing the Security Groups which the port belongs to. $ ovn-nbctl list address_set
_uuid : 039032e4-9d98-4368-8894-08e804e9ee78
addresses : ["10.0.0.118", "10.0.0.123", "10.0.0.138", "10.0.0.143"]
external_ids : {"neutron:security_group_id"="0509db24-4755-4321-bb6f-9a094962ec91"}
name : "as_ip4_0509db24_4755_4321_bb6f_9a094962ec91" ACLs : They are applied to a Logical Switch (Neutron network). They have a 1-to-many relationship with Neutron Security Group Rules. For instance, when the user creates a single Neutron rule within a Security Group to allow ingress ICMP traffic, it will map to N ACLs in OVN Northbound database with N being the number of ports that belong to that Security Group. $ openstack security group rule create --protocol icmp default _uuid : 6f7635ff-99ae-498d-8700-eb634a16903b
action : allow-related
direction : to-lport
external_ids : {"neutron:lport"="95fb15a4-c638-42f2-9035-bee989d80603", "neutron:security_group_rule_id"="70bcb4ca-69d6-499f-bfcf-8f353742d3ff"}
log : false
match : "outport == \"95fb15a4-c638-42f2-9035-bee989d80603\" && ip4 && ip4.src == 0.0.0.0/0 && icmp4"
meter : []
name : []
priority : 1002
severity : []

On the other hand, Neutron has the possibility to filter traffic between ports within the same Security Group or a remote Security Group. One use case may be: a set of VMs whose ports belong to SG1 only allowing HTTP traffic from the outside and another set of VMs whose ports belong to SG2 blocking all incoming traffic. From Neutron, you can create a rule to allow database connections from SG1 to SG2. In this case, in OVN we'll see ACLs referencing the aforementioned Address Sets. In

$ openstack security group rule create --protocol tcp --dst-port 3306 --remote-group webservers default
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field | Value |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| created_at | 2018-12-21T11:29:32Z |
| description | |
| direction | ingress |
| ether_type | IPv4 |
| id | 663012c1-67de-45e1-a398-d15bd4f295bb |
| location | None |
| name | None |
| port_range_max | 3306 |
| port_range_min | 3306 |
| project_id | 471603b575184afc85c67d0c9e460e85 |
| protocol | tcp |
| remote_group_id | 11059b7d-725c-4740-8db8-5c5b89865d0f |
| remote_ip_prefix | None |
| revision_number | 0 |
| security_group_id | 0509db24-4755-4321-bb6f-9a094962ec91 |
| updated_at | 2018-12-21T11:29:32Z |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

This gets the following OVN ACL into Northbound database:

_uuid : 03dcbc0f-38b2-42da-8f20-25996044e516
action : allow-related
direction : to-lport
external_ids : {"neutron:lport"="7d6247b7-65b9-4864-a9a0-a85bacb4d9ac", "neutron:security_group_rule_id"="663012c1-67de-45e1-a398-d15bd4f295bb"}
log : false
match : "outport == \"7d6247b7-65b9-4864-a9a0-a85bacb4d9ac\" && ip4 && ip4.src == $as_ip4_11059b7d_725c_4740_8db8_5c5b89865d0f && tcp && tcp.dst == 3306"
meter : []
name : []
priority : 1002
severity : [] Problem "at scale"

In order to best illustrate the impact of the optimizations that the Port Groups feature brought in OpenStack, let's take a look at the number of ACLs on a typical setup when creating just 100 ports on a single network. All those ports will belong to a Security Group with the following rules:

Allow incoming SSH traffic Allow incoming HTTP traffic Allow incoming ICMP traffic Allow all IPv4 traffic between ports of this same Security Group Allow all IPv6 traffic between ports of this same Security Group Allow all outgoing IPv4 traffic Allow all outgoing IPv6 traffic

Every time we create a port, new 10 ACLs (the 7 rules above + DHCP traffic ACL + default egress drop ACL + default ingress drop ACL) will be created in OVN:

$ ovn-nbctl list ACL| grep ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b | grep match
match : "outport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip6 && ip6.src == $as_ip6_0509db24_4755_4321_bb6f_9a094962ec91"
match : "outport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip"
match : "outport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip4 && ip4.src == 0.0.0.0/0 && icmp4"
match : "inport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip4"
match : "outport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip4 && ip4.src == $as_ip4_0509db24_4755_4321_bb6f_9a094962ec91"
match : "inport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip6"
match : "outport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip4 && ip4.src == 0.0.0.0/0 && tcp && tcp.dst == 80"
match : "outport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip4 && ip4.src == 0.0.0.0/0 && tcp && tcp.dst == 22"
match : "inport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip4 && ip4.dst == {255.255.255.255, 10.0.0.0/8} && udp && udp.src == 68 && udp.dst == 67"
match : "inport == \"ce2ad98f-58cf-4b47-bd7c-38019f844b7b\" && ip"

With 100 ports, we'll observe 1K ACLs in the system:

$ ovn-nbctl lsp-list neutron-ebde771e-a93d-438d-a689-d02e9c91c7cf | wc -l
100
$ ovn-nbctl acl-list neutron-ebde771e-a93d-438d-a689-d02e9c91c7cf | wc -l
1000

When ovn-northd sees these new ACLs, it'll create the corresponding Logical Flows in Southbound database that will then be translated by ovn-controller to OpenFlow flows in the actual hypervisors. The number of Logical Flows also for this 100 ports system can be pulled like this:

$ ovn-sbctl lflow-list neutron-ebde771e-a93d-438d-a689-d02e9c91c7cf | wc -l
3052

At this point, you can pretty much tell that this doesn't look very promising at scale.

Optimization

One can quickly spot an optimization consisting on having just one ACL per Security Group Rule instead of one ACL per Security Group Rule per port if only we could reference a set of ports and not each port individually on the 'match' column of an ACL. This would alleviate calculations mainly on the networking-ovn side where we saw a bottleneck at scale when processing new ports due to the high number of ACLs.

Such optimization woul

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